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   2015| April-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since December 30, 2016

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Comparison of dexmedetomidine, lidocaine, and their combination in attenuation of cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to tracheal extubation and anesthesia emergence in hypertensive patients
Ashraf MA Moustafa, Hatem Atalla, Hala M Koptan
April-June 2015, 2(2):1-6
Introduction This study was carried out to compare the effi cacy of the dexmedetomidine– lidocaine combination with each drug alone in suppressing the hemodynamic and catecholamine stress responses during tracheal extubation and emergence from general anesthesia. Patients and methods Sixty hypertensive patients (ASA II– III), defi ned as systolic blood pressure more than 160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure more than 95 mmHg, undergoing elective surgery were assigned to a randomized, double-blind approach and were divided into three equal groups: group D received 0.25 mg/kg dexmedetomidine intravenously, group L received 1.0 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously, and group DL received dexmedetomidine plus lidocaine at the same doses intravenously 2 min before tracheal extubation. Changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, rate– pressure product, and plasma catecholamine levels were measured before and after tracheal extubation. Results It was found that heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rate– pressure product following tracheal extubation were lower in patients receiving the dexmedetomidine– lidocaine combination than in those receiving dexmedetomidine or lidocaine as a sole drug. In addition, catecholamine concentrations increased significantly after extubation (P < 0.05) in the three groups, with no signifi cant difference between them. Also, the tracheal extubation score was lower in groups L and DL compared with group D. Conclusion Although dexmedetomidine, lidocaine, or their combination failed to suppress the catecholamine responses to tracheal extubation and emergence from anesthesia, the dexmedetomidine– lidocaine combination was superior to each drug alone in attenuating the cardiovascular changes in hypertensive patients.
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A comparative study of intrathecal dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as additives to bupivacaine
Ahmed El-Attar, Mohamed Abdel Aleem, Ragab Beltagy, Wafaa Ahmed
April-June 2015, 2(2):43-49
Background In recent years, the use of intrathecal adjuvants has gained popularity. The quality of spinal anesthesia has been reported to improve with the addition of opioids and other drugs, but until now there is no single drug with no side effects. The aim of this study was to compare the addition of either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine as regards the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effects, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of either drug. Materials and methods Sixty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists as classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to three groups (20 patients each): group B, group F, and group D. Group B patients received 3 ml (15 mg) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.5 ml of normal saline intrathecally. Group F patients received 3 ml (15 mg) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.5 ml (25 μg) of preservative-free fentanyl intrathecally. Group D patients received 3 ml (15 mg) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.5 ml (5 μg) of diluted, preservative-free dexmedetomidine intrathecally. Results Patients in the dexmedetomidine group (D) had faster sensory and motor onsets compared with those in the fentanyl group (F) and the bupivacaine group (B) (P = 0.000 for both sensory and motor). Patients in group D had significantly longer sensory and motor durations compared with those in groups F and B (P = 0.000). Patients in the dexmedetomidine group (D) did not have significant hemodynamic changes; they had prolonged analgesic effect with less 24 h requirements of analgesics, and they had nonsignificant adverse effects. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine has faster onset compared with fentanyl and bupivacaine when injected intrathecally along with bupivacaine; it prolonged the sensory and motor blocks and was hemodynamically stable, with no significant side effects and with less requirements of postoperative analgesic needs during the first 24h.
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Effects of dexmedetomidine versus morphine on surgical stress response and analgesia in postoperative open cardiac surgery
Said M Al-Medani, Fawzi A Neemat-Allah, Mohamed M El-Sawy, Ragab S Beltagi, Mohamed H Osman
April-June 2015, 2(2):16-23
Background The aim of this study was to compare between dexmedetomidine and morphine for use as sedative/analgesics and to evaluate their effects on surgical stress response during the first 24 h following open cardiac surgery in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU). Patients and methods The present double-blind study was carried out on 30 adult patients 60 years of age or older admitted to the Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of the Alexandria Main University Hospital of ASA physical status grade II and III, scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery under general anesthesia. Immediately after sternal closure at the end of surgery, patients were classified randomly using the closed-envelope technique into two equal groups, started immediately on a continuous intravenous infusion (without a loading dose) of either dexmedetomidine or morphine and continued for 24 h postoperatively. Dexmedetomidine group (group D): dexmedetomidine was prepared at a concentration of 0.1 μg/kg/ml and was infused at a dose of 0.1-0.7 μg/kg/h (equivalent to an infusion rate of 1-7 ml/h). Morphine group (group M): morphine was prepared at a concentration of 10 μg/kg/ml and was infused at a dose of 10-70 μg/kg/h (equivalent to an infusion rate of 1-7 ml/h). Patients were followed up in the CICU for the first 24 h following open cardiac surgery on the basis of hemodynamic changes, plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and cortisol levels, time to successful tracheal extubation, postoperative pain, incidence of delirium, and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Results The mean heart rate values were significantly lower in group D compared with group M during most of the postoperative period. The mean values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure, on comparing the two groups, had showed no statistically significant difference during the entire postoperative period. The mean values of IL-6, cortisol, and glucose were increased significantly in group M relative to group D at 6 and 24 h postoperatively. Time to successful tracheal extubation was significantly shorter in patients of group D than in patients of group M. Visual analogue scale for pain score and Motor Activity Assessment Scale for sedation score showed no significant difference when both groups were compared during the entire postoperative period. The total number of patients with delirium was significantly fewer in group D than group M. The incidences of nausea and vomiting events were insignificantly lower in group D than group M. Conclusion The administration of dexmedetomidine exerted a potent negative chronotropic effect with decreased heart rate. Both dexmedetomidine and morphine equivalently decreased the blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure) in a range of 15-20% in relation to the preoperative readings. Dexmedetomidine significantly attenuated the surgical stress response and the neuroendocrine response in comparison with morphine through the suppression of the postoperative increase of IL-6 and cortisol, respectively. Dexmedetomidine had promoted earlier recovery and tracheal extubation than morphine, with no accompanying respiratory depression. Both dexmedetomidine and morphine were efficient sedative/analgesics for postoperative cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence and duration of delirium after cardiac surgery.
  1,747 212 1
Evaluation of red cell distribution width as a septic marker in comparison with clinical scores, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels
Assem Abdel Razek, Atef Abdel Aziz Mahrous, Karim Mohammad Zakaria
April-June 2015, 2(2):24-33
Introduction Biomarkers, which were introduced in the diagnosis and risk assessment of sepsis, could contribute toward predicting outcome in those patients affected by sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock who could benefit from a quick and appropriate therapy. Among different molecules that have been suggested as sepsis biomarkers in the last few years is red cell distribution width, which appears quite promising because of its reported correlation with the septic process. The aim of this study was to compare between red cell distribution width, C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin as diagnostic and prognostic markers in sepsis. Patients and methods This study was carried out on 45 adult patients of both sexes who had sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock; all of them received the same treatment as recommended by the surviving sepsis campaign; 17 of these patients have survived and the other 28 did not survive (group I). There were 45 healthy adult volunteers (group II). The patients in the study group were those who were admitted to the units of the Critical Care Medicine Department in Alexandria Main University Hospital and who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock on arrival to ICU according to the SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Venous blood samples were obtained from group I on admission, day 5, and day 10 to determine red blood cell distribution width (RDW), CRP, and procalcitonin levels on admission, day 5, and day 10; the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was also measured on days 1, 5, and 10. The APACHE II score was measured only on admission. Patients were managed according to the surviving sepsis campaign guidelines. Results On comparing the biomarkers studied in both groups, it was found that the values of RDW, CRP, and procalcitonin were significantly different between group I on admission and group II. CRP was less accurate than RDW and procalcitonin in assessing the severity of sepsis at admission. The best diagnostic cut-off for RDW on admission was 15.3%: at that level, sensitivity and specificity were 86.6 and 71.1%, respectively. The best diagnostic cut-off for CRP on admission was 39 mg/dl: at that level, sensitivity and specificity were 66.6 and 80%, respectively, and for procalcitonin, it was 1.4 ng/ml; at that level, sensitivity and specificity were 88.8 and 91.1%, respectively. Higher RDW values were found in patients with higher APACHE II and SOFA scores. RDW, the APACHE II score, and the SOFA score were significantly higher in nonsurvivors in comparison with survivors (P = 0.011, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). On comparing the markers studied for their prognostic value, we found that RDW and procalcitonin were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors (P = 0.11 and 0.002, respectively), and CRP concentrations were not statistically different between survivors and nonsurvivors at admission. The best prognostic cut-off for RDW on admission was 16.4%: at that level, sensitivity and specificity were 80 and 67.68%, respectively, and for procalcitonin, it was 5.1 ng/ml; at that level, sensitivity and specificity were 94.12 and 60.7%, respectively. Conclusion RDW is a new promising and readily available cheap biomarker that can aid the diagnosis of sepsis and also aid prediction of outcome comparable with more complex clinical scores (APACHE II and SOFA).
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Comparative study between succinylcholine, rocuronium and magnesium sulphate with rocuronium in rapid sequence induction
Nagwa M El-Kobbia, Maher M Doghaim, Moustafa Abdelaziz Moustafa, Ahmed M Deifallah
April-June 2015, 2(2):57-61
Background Rapid sequence induction usually applies when tracheal intubation must be performed in a patient who is suspected of having a full stomach and who is at risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Succinylcholine is the traditional depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent used in rapid sequence induction. However, it has a number of undesirable side effects. Magnesium may have a role in potentiation of neuromuscular blockade produced by neuromuscular blockers such as rocuronium. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of magnesium sulphate pretreatment on intubating conditions and cardiovascular responses during rapid sequence tracheal intubation (RSI). Patients and methods A total of 60 adult patients were randomly allocated to three groups: the succinylcholine group, which received 1 mg/kg succinylcholine; the rocuronium group, which received 1.2 mg/kg rocuronium preceded 15 min with 500 ml normal saline; and the magnesium rocuronium group, which received 1.2 mg/kg rocuronium preceded 15 min with 60 mg/kg magnesium sulphate in 500 ml normal saline infusion. Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl, propofol and a neuromuscular-blocking drug on the basis of the studied group. An anaesthesiologist, blinded to the rocuronium group assignments, performed RSI and assessed the onset time, intubating conditions and clinical duration of neuromuscular block in the different groups. Haemodynamics were recorded before magnesium sulphate or normal saline infusion, after anaesthesia induction and every minute after intubation for 5 min. Results The onset time was shortest in the succinylcholine and magnesium groups. The intubating conditions were significantly better in the magnesium group (P < 0.001) compared with the other two groups. Significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure were observed at 1 min after intubation in the succinylcholine and rocuronium groups relative to stable haemodynamics in the magnesium group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Magnesium sulphate administered before RSI using fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium may shorten the onset time and improve the intubating conditions comparable to those of succinylcholine and suppress the haemodynamic stress response to intubation.
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Adaptive support ventilation versus biphasic positive airway pressure in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Amr A Elmorsy, Bassem N Beshay, Emad H Mousa
April-June 2015, 2(2):34-42
Introduction The goal of mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is to maintain both adequate oxygenation and ventilation, reduce the work of breathing, and improve the comfort of the patient until the condition has been reversed or alleviated. Unlike conventional pressure-controlled ventilatory modes, biphasic modes [biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP)] allow for unrestricted spontaneous breathing. Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a new ventilatory mode that uses a closed-loop controlled mode between breaths. It can be used safely during initiation, maintenance, or weaning phases of the mechanical ventilation. Objective The aim of this work was to compare between BIPAP and ASV in the management of patients with AECOPD in terms of ventilatory parameters, lung mechanics, patient ventilator dys-synchrony, days of mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Patients and methods This double-blind randomized trial was conducted on 72 AECOPD adult patients admitted to the units of Critical Care Medicine Department in Alexandria Main University Hospital indicated for invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients were excluded for reasons such as pregnancy, hemodynamic instability, and severe neurological disease. They were categorized randomly as follows: group I included 36 patients who were ventilated using the BIPAP mode and group II included 36 patients who were ventilated using the ASV mode. Informed consent was obtained from patients' first of kin after approval from the Ethical Committee of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine. Ventilatory parameters (respiratory rate, tidal volume, peak airway pressure, and rapid shallow breathing index) and lung mechanics (static compliance and inspiratory resistance) were recorded. Patient ventilator dys-synchrony and asynchrony index were recorded daily. Days of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and mortality were calculated. Results In the ASV group, the respiratory rate was significantly lower, tidal volume was higher, and rapid shallow breathing index was lower. Significantly higher compliance and lower resistance were encountered in the ASV group, with better patient-ventilator synchronization. A significant reduction in days of mechanical ventilation in the ASV group was found with less ICU length of stay. Conclusion ASV may be safer in AECOPD patients and may have a better prognosis.
  1,339 181 -
The relation between interleukin-6 and different categories of acute coronary syndrome
Tarek Hussein Elbadawy, Atef Abdel Aziz Mahrous, Haitham Hosney El Samnody
April-June 2015, 2(2):7-15
Background Inflammation is now recognized to play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Two circulating markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6, have emerged as predictors of future cardiovascular pathology and mortality in epidemiologic studies of (middle aged women) midlife healthy men and women, postmenopausal women, and older adults. The aim of the present study was to study the changes in IL-6 in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to clarify whether IL-6 release is a factor initiating the inflammatory process in ACS or whether it is predominantly a response to this clinical condition, and to assess its correlation with CRP, cardiac biomarkers troponin I, and CK-MB for risk prediction in ACS. Patients and methods The study included 60 patients admitted by ACS who were categorized randomly into three groups: group I included 20 patients admitted for unstable angina, group II included 20 patients admitted for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with successful thrombolytic therapy, and group III included 20 patients admitted for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with failed thrombolytic therapy. The study also included 12 healthy control patients matched for age and sex (group IV). Blood levels of IL-6, CRP, and cardiac troponin I were measured; all samples of groups II and III were obtained after thrombolytic therapy whereas samples of group I were obtained on admission. Results IL-6 was significantly higher in group II, with a mean of 87.10, and ranged from 3.0 to 550.0; on exclusion of two patients who had an IL-6 level of 220 and 550 we obtained a mean of 54. In group III, the mean level was 52.36, ranging from 5.0 to 120.0, compared with control group IV, in which it ranged from 3.0 to 5.0, mean 3.67 (P < 0.001*). There was a positive correlation between IL-6 and CRP levels in group I (r = 0.385, P = 0.094) and group II (r = 0.166, P = 0.483), but this was statistically nonsignificant, and in group III, there was a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.638, P = 0.0002). IL-6 serum levels did not correlate with cardiac troponin levels in any of the patient groups I (r = 0.049, P = 0.836), in group II (r = 0.151, P = 0.524), and in group III (r = 0.079, P = 0.741). IL-6 did not correlate with any of the risk factors such as history of IHD, HTN, DM, and smoking. There was no statistically significant correlation between IL-6 and complications, except for the development of shock. The CRP level was significantly increased in ACS in comparison with the control group. CRP showed a significant increase in group III, ranging from 10.70 to 181, mean 84.25, and ranging from 2.47 to 155, mean 54.37 in group II compared with a mean level of 50.44 in group I and a mean of 1.96 in the control group, group IV (P = 0.0001*). Conclusion Atherosclerosis is currently considered a systemic inflammatory disease and IL-6 is an inflammatory cytokine. The IL-6 serum level was significantly increased in patients with ACS and in patients with successful thrombolytic therapy. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between IL-6 and CRP in ACS patients with failed thrombolytic therapy; IL-6 serum levels did not correlate with cardiac troponin levels in any of the ACS patient groups.
  1,205 178 1
Feasibility and perioperative pain-relieving efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery
Abeer A Sherif, Hala M Koptan, Samer M Soliman
April-June 2015, 2(2):50-56
Background The implementation of adequate postoperative analgesia is beneficial in morbidly obese patients. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new regional anesthetic technique that has been implemented successfully for pain control after laparoscopic surgery in nonobese patients, and is challenging to perform on obese patients. The introduction of ultrasound guidance has enabled greater precision of needle placement in the desired tissue plane in such patients. Patients and methods Hundred patients were included in this study. Patients were assigned randomly to two equal groups: group 1 (TAP, n = 50) and group 2 (control, n = 50). The following parameters were recorded: total volume of morphine consumed, numeric rating scores at rest and on coughing, postoperative nausea and vomiting, time to mobilization, patient, and surgeon satisfaction scores. Results Lower numeric rating scores was reported among patients who received TAP block; cumulative morphine consumption was consistently lower at 24 and 48 h, postoperatively. Patient satisfaction with pain relief was rated as good by 85% of the patients in the TAP block group and 45% of the patients in the control group. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided TAP block is a feasible technique for effective multimodal postoperative analgesia in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
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